Tuesday, March 17, 2020
D Caries essays Caries have been a constant nuisance to humans, decaying teeth can become a major problem for those affected. It is certainly not the oldest pathology, nor the one of the greatest prevalence throughout humankind, but the information that can be extrapolate from such pathologies is great. The aim of this paper is to outline the pathology of caries and the influence that these have had on the human populations affected. Caries or caries dentium is the common name for tooth decay. It is a local disease, which is characterized by an irreversible and permanent destruction of the tooth hard tissue, enamel. Thus spreads the destruction to the rest of the tooth and, and possibly leading to tooth loss and possibly infections in other areas, more specifically through the maxillary or mandibular areas. Also I have included some other defects that are import and not only to the observation of caries but overall pathologies and their implications for the individuals affected. In this paper I will attempt to outline the causes of this disease and some of the numerous factors that cause it, as many have a hand in the process. Also I will show how these changes were brought about and how these affected the individuals with caries. To begin I will introduce the reader he to other defects that affect the same area and should be considered when any analysis of the area is to be understood. Any disturbance, such as severe infection can disrupt enamel formation. That disruption of enamel formation will leave an enduring record as a disorientation of enamel prisms. Because the human dental growth sequence is known, the age at which the enamel disturbance occurred can be determined from the location of the disturbance within the enamel. A standard chart for dental development can be consulted for this purpose. There is extensive literature (now in excess of 500 articles) on the epidemiology and etiology of enamel defects. Many of which have been...
Saturday, February 29, 2020
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Posttraumatic stress disorder is an anxiety disorder caused by exposure to a trauma event. When the body feels that it is in danger, it responds to flying or fighting reactions designed to protect people from harm. When the body faces horror, functions such as memory, emotions, thinking, etc. are currently not important and are turned off. This allows the body to concentrate on adding stress hormones to increase heart rate, blood movement to the muscles and in the case of injury in combating infections and bleeding (National Alliance on Mental Health Website, 2014). Post traumatic stress disorder, that is exactly that. The first response to this disease would be the pressure for over-application and trauma experience. Kay Jankowsi (2010) said posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be traced back to ancient times. History Medical literature literature began with civil war, where PTSD-like disease was called Dakosta syndrome (Jankowsi 2010). Janko wsi (2010) argues that Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that may occur after experiencing or witnessing a life-threatening event (gospelassemblyfree.com). Post-traumatic stress disorder post-traumatic stress disorder is a mental illness that people remember repetitiously or have a dream of a terrible experience (post traumatic stress disorder 710). The explanation of post traumatic stress disorder mainly focuses on the way in which psychological trauma experience is affected. When a person is facing an overwhelming trauma, the brain can not handle information or emotion correctly (Cohen Web). Post traumatic stress disorder changes the body's response to stress. Hundreds of different types of psychiatric disorders, fourth edition are posted in the mental disorder diagnosis and statistics handbook. (DSM - IV) One of them is called post - traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). According to this study post-traumatic injuries usually experienced and witnessed life-thr eatening events such as military attacks, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, serious accidents and rape, and other violent personal attacks It will occur later (Harvard Women 's Health Watch, 2005). Causes and Effects of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Posttraumatic stress disorder is an anxiety disorder caused by exposure to a trauma event. When the body feels that it is in danger, it responds to flying or fighting reactions designed to protect people from harm. When the body faces horror, functions such as memory, emotions, thinking, etc. are currently not important and are turned off. This allows the body to concentrate on adding stress hormones to increase heart rate, blood movement to the muscles and in the case of injury in combating infections and bleeding (National Alliance on Mental Health Website, 2014). Post traumatic stress disorder, that is exactly that. The first response to this disease would be the pressure for over-application and trauma experience. Kay Jankowsi (2010) said posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be traced back to ancient times. History Medical literature literature began with civil war, where PTSD-like disease was called Dakosta syndrome (Jankowsi 2010). Janko wsi (2010) argues that Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that may occur after experiencing or witnessing a life-threatening event (gospelassemblyfree.com). Post-traumatic stress disorder post-traumatic stress disorder is a mental illness that people remember repetitiously or have a dream of a terrible experience (post traumatic stress disorder 710). The explanation of post traumatic stress disorder mainly focuses on the way in which psychological trauma experience is affected. When a person is facing an overwhelming trauma, the brain can not handle information or emotion correctly (Cohen Web). Post traumatic stress disorder changes the body's response to stress. Hundreds of different types of psychiatric disorders, fourth edition are posted in the mental disorder diagnosis and statistics handbook. (DSM - IV) One of them is called post - traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). According to this study post-traumatic injuries usually experienced and witnessed life-thr eatening events such as military attacks, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, serious accidents and rape, and other violent personal attacks It will occur later (Harvard Women 's Health Watch, 2005).
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Lost in Translation - Essay Example In the excerpt provided, Hoffman describes her journey from Europe to North America, the influx of emotions and the kind of experience it was. She puts into perspective what she gained, what she lost, her regrets and her way forward from there. She felt traumatized at the plight of leaving behind her place of childhood and was over-whelmed with an influx of deep emotions as she stood on the deck of her boat. As claimed in the text Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ ¦.I feel that my life is endingÃ¢â¬ ¦and I want to break out, run back, run toward similar excitement, the waving hands, the exclamations. We cant be leaving all this behindÃ¢â¬ She felt that a very crucial chapter of her life and of her own existence is being taken away from her, is slipping from her hands and she is in no mood to let it slip. No matter how traumatic her experience was in Cracrow, she yet holds the streets of her childhood, her friends and all her memories very dear to her. As put in the expert regarding her feelings on e migration ..Ã¢â¬ ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a notion of such crushing, definitive finality that to me it might as well mean the end of the world. Ã¢â¬Å" She felt nostalgia engulfing as if the last moments of the best of her life went flashing past by her as the Polish national anthem was played before the ship left. That must have been a very engaging moment for her. She not only had to counter the feeling of leaving behind a very important part of her life but had to suffice it with the feeling of sadness and longiness.
Saturday, February 1, 2020
The Melody of the Nightingale - an Existential Pathway for Finding Peace - Essay Example With that said, a close look will be taken into John KeatsÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Ode to a NightingaleÃ¢â¬ to highlight his version of transcendent beauty and define how he struck out against the oppression of the aristocracy. The wind blows softly in the distance, rustling autumn leaves across the dirt path. Small, broken branches are strewn about, as if from a recent storm, but the dirt is dry and blows little dust tunnels at the slightest provocation. In eight stanzas, the Ã¢â¬Å"Ode to a NightingaleÃ¢â¬ by John Keats sets a reader up in this little moment in time to exhibit the pristine beauty of the nightingale in contrast with the harsh reality of his world. Using the power of poetry, Keats is able to become one with the nightingale, to cast off his world of death and despair and enjoy the beauty of the melody for its enchanting quality of escape. In fact, the very Ã¢â¬Å"act of writing the poem has already allowed him to join the nightingaleÃ¢â¬ (Minahan 173). But, by the fin al stanza, his imagination is such that he is struck by a newfound despair when the object of his words takes flight and leaves him. To understand the speaker of the poemÃ¢â¬â¢s true despair and the beauty he finds from the melody of the nightingale, an explication will be taken into the words of KeatsÃ¢â¬â¢ poem as he takes his reader on an emotional journey while highlighting the enchanting power that nature has in enabling the foundation of inner peace. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s painful, so beautiful a melody that the speaker of the poem is struck by a profound pang upon hearing the nightingaleÃ¢â¬â¢s song. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s as though he is experiencing a Ã¢â¬Å"drowsy numbness [that] pains/[his] senseÃ¢â¬ (lines 1-2). He compares the sound to drinking hemlock (line 2) or taking opiates (line 3) and gives his reader a vision of him staring up at the beautiful nightingale, cursing it for its unendurable ability to be outside his current reality and at peace in some transcendent dimension. By the middle of the stanza, the speaker of the poem is studying the nightingale with solicitous eyes, noting that it must be through Ã¢â¬Å"some melodious plotÃ¢â¬ (line 8) that the aria can achieve such divine beauty. For the speaker, such a carefree attitude seems an impossibilityÃ¢â¬âan incongruous aspect shining inconceivably in a futile and oppressive world. By the second stanza, the speaker is searching for an intoxicant to escape into the world of the nightingale and enjoy a similar untroubled life. He calls for a Ã¢â¬Å"beaker full of the warm SouthÃ¢â¬ (line 15) to immerse himself in a figurative and literal sense, into the song of the nightingale. His mind lingers over the Ã¢â¬Å"beaded bubbles winking at the brimÃ¢â¬ (line 17) that he could become one with nature, allowing him to Ã¢â¬Å"fade away into the forest dimÃ¢â¬ (line 20). In the third stanza, he is taken over by the promise of his intoxicant, waiting to leave behind Ã¢â¬Å"what thou among the leaves has never knownÃ¢â¬ (line 22). In words tainted by despair, he defines this world as one full of sorrow and strife, with Ã¢â¬Å"wearinessÃ¢â¬ ¦feverÃ¢â¬ ¦and fretÃ¢â¬ (line 23), one in which man endures the suffering of illness, hardship, and worry until, in the end, his life culminates in a thankless death. It is a world that beauty cannot even see, where the nightingale Ã¢â¬Å"cannot keep her lustrous eyesÃ¢â¬ (line 29). It is a world only glimpsed through the melodious chimes of the
Friday, January 24, 2020
Employees Motivation A business seeks profit by provided customers with goods and services (Schoell, et al 15). There are various types of businesses that differ according to their ownership. The three basic forms of private ownership businesses are the sole proprietorship (i.e. sole trader), partnership, and corporation (Schoell, et al 132). The type of ownership that a business organization would apply is dependent on the owner's financial status and objectives. Apart from the different types of ownerships, there are various styles of management and leadership. The organization's management and leadership style has a great effect on the working environment and the employees' motivation. The development of an optimal leadership style and managerial skills that is the most appropriate to an organization is crucial, having a major effect on its life span. The working environment affects the employees' motivation, which in turn influences the overall progress and well being of the organization. A ccording to a management consultant, called Peter Economy, "It all comes down to keeping employees enthusiastic and energized," which is accomplished by developing a leadership style that would endorse the ideal environment in the business firm (Buchanan 1). A Manager's leadership style contributes directly to the subordinates' motivation and work satisfaction, and the work progress in the organization. There are two types of leadership styles, one that is task-oriented and the other that is employee-oriented. A manager with a task-oriented style will have work results as his biggest concerns; and therefore, he will develop rigid regulations that would lead the subordinates into working their tasks, exactly as he taught them, to reach his desired results. On the other hand, the manager with an employee-oriented manner will be concerned with the employees' condition. This manager's objective is to boost the employees' self-esteem and persuade them on working together to help him in decision-making and on ways to solve problems. However, not all leaders develop a style that is an absolute task-oriented or employee-oriented, their style is consisted of different characteristics from each styles. Hence a manager would be referred to as a more task-oriented or a more employee-oriented, rather than solely describing him as either one (Schoell, et al... ...level needs. As these needs are satisfied, one pursues the safety needs. The safety needs are the needs for security, the protection from deprivation and from danger. The social needs come after the fist two needs have been met. They are the needs for affection, friendship and companionship. Once these levels of needs are satisfied, one seeks for recognition so as to satisfy his ego needs. Self-actualization needs are at the highest level of the hierarchy, the hardest to reach, and never completely achieved (Schoell, et al 293-4). Herzberg's two-factor theory is a further step of Maslow's theory. Fredrick Herzberg, who is also a psychologist, divided Maslow's hierarchy of needs into two sets of needs, a higher-level set of needs and a lower-level set of needs. He named the hygienes to be the incentive factors that would satisfy the lower set of needs (Schoell, et al 294). They are factors in the working environment itself, such as the working conditions, regulations, interpersonal relations, pay, and supervision. For example, (Bovee, et al 443). However, the incentives that would fulfill the higher-level of needs are called the motivators (Schoell, et al 294).
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Differences in People’s Perception of Reality in the Context of A Streetcar Named Desire by Tennessee Williams
The inadequacy of humans' ability to discern what is real amid complex situations is a factor that forces people to have different meanings and views on all things existing. Heightened by people's internal and external conflicts, the different perspectives of reality are proven to be an unconquerable source of conflict in the society. The differences in people's perception of reality transcend beyond the definition of a systemic psycho-social problem because such differences include opposing value systems, institutionalized beliefs, social ethical codes and the omnipresent patriarchal ideology in the socieities.Such differences are all seen in gender issues as men have their own vision of reality built with their ethical and moral constructs in which women are of inferior status. One insightful literature that exposes the differences in people's perception of reality as a major source of conflict is the book titled A Streetcar Named Desire written by Tennessee Williams. This book is a reflection of how patriarchy remains dominant in the struggle against people's incapacity to discern what is real. This book reveals the uncertainty of destiny and failure to cope with complex situations.The female characters in the story, Blanche and Stella are passionate women who are controlled by their external and internal conflicts. These conflicts overshadow their strong desire for love and freedom making them vulnerable and susceptible to harsh attacks from the patriarchal society. The external conflicts that overpower the life of Blanche are a valuable factors that give great contradictions to her. Economic background is one external conflict inherent in the character of Blanche. Even though she has noble features embedded in her personality, and a lofty social background, her destiny is doomed from the very beginning.This is because she is ignorant about how complex and cruel life can be amid wealth and luxury. As Belle Reve, the family mansion has been traded in exchang e for the epic fornications of their grandfathers, uncles, and their father, Blanche goes to Stella's refuge to start a new life but is failed to do so (Tennessee 2004). Her shift from high social status becomes her external conflict that weakens her against the male characters, the domineering Stanley and Mitch. She lives under the pressure of a failed status and failed marriage and the social rules in which Stanley is the tyrant.Living with Stella, Blanche fails to see the Ã¢â¬Å"realityÃ¢â¬ of the world that contrasts with her beautiful and luxurious dreams. Blanche fails to overcome the cruelity of the real world because she has covered her eyes with horror, uneasiness, revenge and frustration. She never find a way to face the truth head on and all the she does is to take a detour and away from the world that she does not expect. The inner conflict existing in Blanche include her sexual involvement with strangers as the embodiment of her irrational indulgence for sex and cari ng for a lonely heart.The satisfactions of her desire has been the main context of her living and she will take no initiatives to suppress it. She makes her own reality by committing to take her passion to life while neglecting ethical standards and moral values. Her untamed tongue is a reflection that she would not take any negation and considerations when it comes to her desire. As for Stella, she fails to see the cruelty of her husband because her eyes are pointed only to one direction and one belief: that her man cannot do such a thing because of love and commitment. Stella's external conflict is her marriage to her husband.She cannot face the harsh truth because she defines her marriage as fidelity and righteousness alone. She is blinded by her love and cannot see the several dimensions surrounding marriage such as lust. Another conflict in Stella's character is her economic role of making her own living (Tennessee 2004). Stella is so consumed with making money and establishing her own life that she forgets to be sensitive to the needs of her significant others. All that she cares for is her marriage and moneymaking. Stella's one vision of reality reflects a peaceful and successful marriage with Stanley whom she loves most and loves her faithfully in return.Her reality is built within the constructs of society's ethical and moral standards. Her whole life is controlled by fantasy to which she creates an unbreakable bond. The male characters in the story Mitch and Stanley represent life's antagonistic feature that human beings tend to negate or consider as unreal. As the antagonists, they are the object of the assumption that conflicts arise when humans fail to recognize cruelty as part of llife's reality. The imperfection of the two characters substantiate the fact that Stella and Blanche are blinded by their illusions, fantasies and fulfillment of their desires.Stanley and Mitch bring the illusion of the female characters into fierce confrontation with t he cruel reality. Mitch and Stanley also represent the dominance of patriarchy in conflicts. They have the edge in the conflict because they fulfill the illusion and dreams of Stella and Blanche while at the same time make up the cruel reality of the female characters' lives. Mitch and Stanley are the unconquerable force that lead to the external and internal conflicts of the female characters. Stella and Blanche tend to establish that men are solely owned by their worlds of dreams instead of considering them as objects of life's reality.The differences in people's perceptions of reality are determined by their external and internal conflicts. These differences create an outwardly conflict that may destroy personal relationships. Such differences arise when people focus on only one aspect or dimension of life instead of creating a holistic picture of life's reality. The external and internal conflicts lead to such differences and bring constant suffering. The male antagonists symbol ize tension and cruelty which are all part of life that tend to crush people emotionally and physically.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
The expedition to explore the West led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark was an early indication of Americas move toward westward expansion and the concept of Manifest Destiny. Though its widely assumed that Thomas Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to explore the land of the Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson had actually harbored plans to explore the West for years. The reasons for the Lewis and Clark Expedition were more complicated, but planning for the expedition actually began before the great land purchase had even happened. Preparations for the expedition took a year, and the actual journey westward and back took roughly two years. This timeline provides some highlights of the legendary voyage. April 1803 Meriwether Lewis traveled to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, to meet with surveyor Andrew Ellicott, who taught him to use astronomical instruments to plot positions. During the planned expedition to the West, Lewis would use the sextant and other tools to chart his position. Ellicott was a noted surveyor, and had earlier surveyed the boundaries for the District of Columbia. Jefferson sending Lewis to study with Ellicott indicates the serious planning Jefferson put into the expedition. May 1803 Lewis stayed in Philadelphia to study with Jeffersons friend, Dr. Benjamin Rush. The physician gave Lewis some instruction in medicine, and other experts taught him what they could about zoology, botany, and the natural sciences. The purpose was to prepare Lewis to make scientific observations while crossing the continent. July 4, 1803 Jefferson officially gave Lewis his orders on the Fourth of July. July 1803 At Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia), Lewis visited the US Armory and obtained muskets and other supplies to use on the journey. August 1803 Lewis had designed a 55-foot long keelboat which was constructed in western Pennsylvania. He took possession of the boat, and began a journey down the Ohio River. October - November 1803 Lewis met up with his former U.S. Army colleague William Clark, whom he has recruited to share command of the expedition. They also met with other men who volunteered for the expedition, and began forming what would be known as Corps of Discovery. One man on the expedition was not a volunteer: a slave named York who belonged to William Clark. December 1803 Lewis and Clark decided to stay in the vicinity of St. Louis through the winter. They used the time stocking up on supplies. 1804: In 1804 the Lewis and Clark Expedition got underway, setting out from St. Louis to travel up the Missouri River. The leaders of the expedition began keeping journals recording important events, so its possible to account for their movements. May 14, 1804 The voyage officially began when Clark led the men, in three boats, up the Missouri River to a French village. They waited for Meriwether Lewis, who caught up to them after attending some final business in St. Louis. July 4, 1804 The Corps of Discovery celebrated Independence Day in the vicinity of present-day Atchison, Kansas. The small cannon on the keelboat was fired to mark the occasion, and a ration of whiskey was dispensed to the men. August 2, 1804 Lewis and Clark held a meeting with Indian chiefs in present day Nebraska. They gave the Indians peace medals which had been struck at the direction of PresidentÃ Thomas Jefferson. August 20, 1804 A member of the expedition, Sergeant Charles Floyd, became ill, probably with appendicitis. He died and was buried on a high bluff over the river in what is now Sioux City, Iowa. Remarkably, Sergeant Floyd would be the only member of the Corps of Discovery to die during the two-year expedition August 30, 1804 In South Dakota a council was held with the Yankton Sioux. Peace medals were distributed to the Indians, who celebrated the appearance of the expedition. September 24, 1804 Near present-day Pierre, South Dakota, Lewis and Clark met with the Lakota Sioux. The situation became tense but a dangerous confrontation was averted. October 26, 1804 The Corps of Discovery reached a village of the Mandan Indians. The Mandans lived in lodges made of earth, and Lewis and Clark decided to stay near the friendly Indians throughout the oncoming winter. November 1804 Work began on the winter camp. And two vitally important people joined the expedition, a French trapper named Toussaint Charbonneau and his wife Sacagawea, an Indian of the Shoshone tribe. December 25, 1804 In the bitter cold of a South Dakota winter, the Corps of Discovery celebrated Christmas day. Alcoholic drinks were allowed, and rations of rum were served. 1805: January 1, 1805 The Corps of Discovery celebrated New Years Day by firing the cannon on the keelboat. The journal of the expedition noted that 16 men danced for the amusement of the Indians, who enjoyed the performance immensely. The Mandans gave the dancers several buffalo robes and quantities of corn to show appreciation. February 11, 1805 Sacagawea gave birth to a son, Jean-Baptiste Charbonneau. April 1805 Packages were prepared to send back to PresidentÃ Thomas JeffersonÃ with a small return party. The packages contained such items as a Mandan robe, a live prairie dog (which survived the trip to the east coast), animal pelts, and plant samples. This was the only time the expedition could send back any communication until its eventual return. April 7, 1805 The small return party set off back down the river toward St. Louis. The remainder resumed the journey westward. April 29, 1805 A member of the Corps of Discovery shot and killed a grizzly bear, which had chased him. The men would develop a respect and fear for grizzlies. May 11, 1805 Meriwether Lewis, in his journal, described another encounter with a grizzly bear. He mentioned how the formidable bears were very difficult to kill. May 26, 1805 Lewis saw the Rocky Mountains for the first time. June 3, 1805 The men came to a fork in the Missouri River, and it was unclear which fork should be followed. A scouting party went out and determined that the south fork was the river and not a tributary. They judged correctly; the north fork is actually the Marias River. June 17, 1805 The Great Falls of the Missouri River were encountered. The men could no longer proceed by boat, but had to portage, carrying a boat across land. The travel at this point was extremely difficult. July 4, 1805 The Corps of Discovery marked Independence Day by drinking the last of their alcohol. The men had been trying to assemble a collapsible boat which theyd brought from St. Louis. But in the following days they could not make it watertight and the boat was abandoned. They planned to construct canoes to continue the journey. August 1805 Lewis intended to find the Shoshone Indians. He believed they had horses and hoped to barter for some. August 12, 1805 Lewis reached the Lemhi Pass, in the Rocky Mountains. From the Continental Divide Lewis could look to the West, and he was greatly disappointed to see mountains stretching as far as he can see. He had been hoping to find a descending slope, and perhaps a river, that the men could take for an easy passage westward. It became clear that reaching the Pacific Ocean would be very difficult. August 13, 1805 Lewis encountered Shosone Indians. The Corps of Discovery was split at this point, with Clark leading a larger group. When Clark did not arrive at a rendezvous point as planned, Lewis was worried, and sent search parties out for him. Finally Clark and the other men arrived, and the Corps of Discovery was united. The Shoshone rounded up horses for the men to use on their way westward. September 1805 The Corps of Discovery encountered very rough terrain in the Rocky Mountains, and their passage was difficult. They finally emerged from the mountains and encountered Nez Perce Indians. The Nez Perce helped them build canoes, and they began to travel again by water. October 1805 The expedition moved fairly quickly by canoe, and the Corps of Discovery entered the Columbia River. November 1805 In his journal, Meriwether Lewis mentioned encountering Indians wearing sailors jackets. The clothing, obviously obtained through trade with whites, meant they were getting close to the Pacific Ocean. November 15, 1805 The expedition reached the Pacific Ocean. On November 16, Lewis mentioned in his journal that their camp is in full view of the ocean. December 1805 The Corps of Discovery settled into winter quarters in a place where they can hunt elk for food. In the journals of the expedition, there was much complaining about the constant rain and poor food. On Christmas Day the men celebrated as best they could, in what must have been miserable conditions. 1806: As spring came, the Corps of Discovery made preparations to begin traveling back toward to the East, to the young nation they had left behind nearly two years earlier. March 23, 1806: Canoes Into the Water In late March the Corps of Discovery put its canoes into the Columbia River and began the journey eastward. April 1806: Moving Eastward Quickly The men traveled along in their canoes, occasionally having to portage, or carry the canoes overland, when they came to difficult rapids. Despite the difficulties, they tended to move quickly, encountering friendly Indians along the way. May 9, 1806: Reunion With the Nez Perce The Corps of Discovery met up again with the Nez Perce Indians, who had kept the expeditions horses healthy and fed throughout the winter. May 1806: Forced to Wait The expedition was forced to stay among the Nez Perce for a few weeks while waiting for the snow to melt in the mountains ahead of them. June 1806: Travel Resumed The Corps of Discovery got underway again, setting off to cross the mountains. When they encountered snow that was 10 to 15 feet deep, they turned back. At the end of June, they once again set off to travel eastward, this time taking three Nez Perce guides along to help them navigate the mountains. July 3, 1806: Splitting the Expedition Having successfully crossed the mountains, Lewis and Clark decided to split the Corps of Discovery so they can accomplish more scouting and perhaps find other mountain passes. Lewis would follow the Missouri River, and Clark would follow the Yellowstone until it met up with the Missouri. The two groups would then reunite. July 1806: Finding Ruined Scientific Samples Lewis found a cache of material he had left previous year, and discovered that some of his scientific samples had been ruined by moisture. July 15, 1806: Fighting a Grizzly While exploring with a small party, Lewis was attacked by a grizzly bear. In a desperate encounter, fought it off by breaking his musket over the bears head and then climbing a tree. July 25, 1806: A Scientific Discovery Clark, exploring separately from Lewiss party, found a dinosaur skeleton. July 26, 1806: Escape From the Blackfeet Lewis and his men met up with some Blackfeet warriors, and they all camped together. The Indians attempted to steal some rifles, and, in a confrontation that turned violent, one Indian was killed and another possibly wounded. Lewis rallied the men and had them travel quickly, covering nearly 100 miles by horseback as they fear retaliation from the Blackfeet. August 12, 1806: The Expedition Reunites Lewis and Clark reunited along the Missouri River, in present-day North Dakota. August 17, 1806: Farewell to Sacagawea At a Hidatsa Indian village, the expedition paid Charbonneau, the French trapper who had accompanied them for nearly two years, his wages of $500. Lewis and Clark said their goodbyes to Charbonneau, his wife Sacagawea, and her son, who had been born on the expedition a year and a half earlier. August 30, 1806: Confrontation With the Sioux The Corps of Discovery was confronted by a band of nearly 100 Sioux warriors. Clark communicated with them and told them the men will kill any Sioux who approaches their camp. September 23, 1806: Celebration in St. Louis The expedition arrived back at St. Louis. The townspeople stood on the riverbank and cheered their return. Legacy of Lewis and Clark The Lewis and Clark Expedition did not directly lead to settlement in the West. In some ways, efforts like the settlement of the trading post at Astoria (in present-day Oregon) were more important. And it wasnt until the Oregon Trail became popular, decades later, that large numbers of settlers began moving into the Pacific Northwest. It would not be until the administration of James K. Polk that much of the territory in the Northwest crossed by Lewis and Clark would officially became part of the United States. And it would take the California Gold Rush to truly popularize the rush to the West Coast. Yet the Lewis and Clark expedition provided valuable information about the vest stretches of prairies and mountain ranges between the Mississippi and the Pacific.